Tuesday, 28 March 2017

Bogey Man Photo by Rodrick Lal -- National Geographic Your Shot

Bogey Man Photo by Rodrick Lal -- National Geographic Your Shot: Bogey Man Photo by Rodrick Lal -- National Geographic Your Shot

Sunday, 26 March 2017

Progress in Education is about building a unique culture and attitude towards learning




It has become fashionable today for most upcoming schools to brand themselves as progressive schools and they claim to promote, ‘student-led learning, collaborative learning, experiential learning, and learning by doing’- clich├ęd terms that have been around for centuries; much bandied but misunderstood. Progressivism in education, however, needs to be based on a Philosophy of liberalism that accepts the uniqueness of each individual and promotes respect for multiple perspectives.
An undeniable fact is that a lot of institutions that promote themselves under the banner of progressivism are in reality institutions that are based on a didactic philosophy meant to lead to a specific learning outcome and a single answer. One might argue, so truly, that there might not be any single solution to a problem, and there might, in fact, be, better solutions to the problem than the one prescribed by the textbook, or for that effect, the subject expert.
Progressivism in education can be a success only when the core philosophy is based on ‘experiential’ principles of learning. Experientialism, however, should not be confused with experimentalism (far be it that we should use learners as Guinea pigs).  For experiential learning to be effective it is important to develop a culture of mutual respect, an atmosphere of tolerance and an environment of safety. Progressivism as such is not just about the use of latest technology, and the latest gadgets, rather it is about a culture conducive to learning by experience,
For progressivism to be a reality, learners need to be provided with an experientially rich environment, an environment that provides for a rich sensory experience.  An experiential classroom will have suitable opportunities for students to explore their world and thus use their experiences to come up with suitable solutions to the problem. One of the key elements of experiential pedagogy is problem-solving. Ideally, the learner is presented with a problem and a list of principles to solve the same. An example in mind is the teaching of poetry. Poetry is open to a variety of interpretations, and any interpretation is valid and alright as long as it is supported by proof from the text or poem. It is surprising how students who are allowed to analyze the poem will come up with an interpretation that is quite accurate and correct, although correctness is a relative term.
Experiential learning has much to do with collaborative learning, and for this to be possible, it is important for students to sit in crews or groups. The ideal number of students in each crew or group would be four to five students. The downside of crew seating is however that the noise level might be a little high. Crew seating fosters brains storming, small group discussion, and learning through the Socratic dialogue.
The role of a teacher in a Progressive learning set up is that of a guide and a facilitator. He or she is not there to dictate or lecture answers to the learners. For this to be a possibility, the facilitator would need to undergo a period of training and unlearning where he learns to shed off his vulnerabilities, insecurities, and inhibitions about letting go of control of the class. The biggest factor that limits experiential learning is the facilitator’s own fear of losing control in the class. This might be because of a fear that the learner might come up with a better answer or an explanation. The facilitator will have to equip himself or herself for surprises in the learning situation, this includes having the patience and maturity not to react negatively towards some of the most outrageous of answers, and sometimes, the shock of realising that the learner has come up with a most original answer, one that is correct but never occurred to the facilitator.
Lesson plans prepared for an experiential lesson would require giving enough freedom and leeway for the learners to come up with their own solutions and observations. The challenge to experiential learning might, however, come from the way learners are assessed in the annual board exams. Unfortunately, students who are creative and think out of the box might not be able to score very well in the annual summative board exams. This is a challenge that needs to be given more attention, although the CBSE has made a few changes in the board question papers by introducing HOTS (Higher Order Thinking Skill) questions that are based on the learner’s experiential learning skills. The framers of the CBSE Curriculum need to align the annual summative board exams with a more experiential learning pattern in schools.
While it is true that Progressive learning supported by an experiential culture ensures that the pedagogy is more student led, ideally to the ratio of 75 to 25 per cent, it doesn’t mean however that the facilitator is a mute spectator throughout! Experiential learner requires the facilitator to be more alert, and active in class than he would have been while sticking close to the green board. The experiential facilitator would have to be constantly on his feet, moving towards each group of learners, guiding, mentoring and observing the progress of the lesson. It is clear moreover that the experiential educator is more democratic and tolerant than the more traditional chalk and board, lecturer.
A few critics of experiential learning might argue about the need to conduct classes outside the classroom or the boundaries of the school. It is true that some of the well-known schools like Shantiniketan and Mirambika are experiential schools, they take their students out to learn new things, and this, however, need not be the rule for experiential learning. Educational technology can help reduce the need for expeditionary or out-bound learning by creating a virtual environment for a rich learning experience. Students who bring their own devices (BYOD) and have access to the internet can if guided carefully do their own research, visit virtual classrooms, and use the vast learning resources made available on the net. An expeditionary format of teaching and learning will not be a success unless there is proper planning for it. The ‘Big Idea’ of the lesson, along with the ‘Learning Outcomes’ need to be clearly stated to the students at the outset. The hook, the starter and the plenary at the end of the learning need to be clear in the mind of the educator. It goes without saying that every learning schedule is incomplete without the exit ticket or the plenary which sums up what has been learned during the lesson.
The detractors of the experiential form of pedagogy would have a field day in criticizing the pedagogy for leading to disruption, chaos, excess voice levels and too much of questioning, however, these issues can be done away with if the lesson is planned carefully. It is very difficult for learners to digress from the lesson when the learning outcomes are stated clearly to them, and the instructions are made clear. In many cases, a ‘note catcher’ with the relevant headings, or an ‘analysis kit’ should be given to the students so that they know what to do during the lesson.
Unfortunately, imposing a fixed lesson plan with no scope for digression or modification is highly detrimental to the experiential process of learning. What works well in one class might not work in another at all! Progressivism in pedagogy assumes that there will be enough flexibility in planning, though the learning outcomes are non-negotiable!
Progressive learning is about having students to come up with their own observations, interpretations, and conclusions through a learning process that is flexible, adaptive, and secure and healthy. The creation of a healthy and secure environment where both teachers and students adopt a non-judgmental attitude in class will go a long way in contributing to an effective learning environment. When students listen to their classmates without being sarcastic and critical, and teachers give each student the chance to express his or her views it contributes towards a more satisfying learning experience. If good teaching is about being able to fulfill one’s teaching targets, it is also about teachers learning from their students. Progressive schools promote active learning in their facilitators through workshops observations and other in-service programs. It is much more fun teaching in an experiential progressive school because teachers in this set up are as likely to learn new things and hear about new perspectives from their students as students are likely to learn from their mentors!

Friday, 24 March 2017

A Day out at the Lohagarh Farm
















When I was told that we would be going for the session end picnic to Lohagarh near Badshahpur, I was not very sure if we would be going to a place I used to visit many years back, in fact, twenty-five years ago while going for a trek in the Aravali mountains. I became sure once we reached the camp, for it was indeed on a left turn from where we would take the straight road towards the Ansals Settlement on top of the Aravali range close to Baas Gaon. We used to take the short-cut climbing the sheer cliff face right next to the farm. In those days, we would park our bikes and scooters at the Sarpanch's house in Baas Gaon, and Amma, would serve us a couple of glasses of Chaach, (the sour-salted buttermilk drink that is so refreshing) prior to our climbing the mountain for our trek. My father, many many years before I was born used to go on same treks in these very mountains, and it was on one while he was accompanied by Dr.Murari, an animal vet. and a few others that they were stalked by a tiger ( I have written about the incident in my Book, 'The Andromeda Connection, A Journey in Time' which is available on Amazon). The common factor for my father and me was, of course, Amma, and her husband, whom we both knew in different eras, though. While at the Lohagarh farm, I did ask the lady who was serving us with Makki ki Roti and Sarson ka Saag (Corn flour chapatis and a mash of mustard leave) about Amma, and she told me that she was very much there - she must be more than ninety years old!







A lot has taken place in the field of transportation since the times when there were Jugads and those ubiquitous Diesel three wheelers that looked more like monsters belching out smoke while emitting a loud chest-thumping roar. There were two of these antiques at the farm house that helped us relive our memories of times when life moved at a snail's pace and we had lot's of time to laze around!

Jugaad-Circa 1987



Eco-tourism is a concept that provides people in rural areas opportunities for employment. A large number of local residents are employed as chefs, guides, camel drivers, tractor drivers, and so on. A typical rural extended kitchen comes to life with guests coming in to sit on stools waiting to be served a variety of dishes, most of which are cooked in the traditional way on wood stoves in the traditional way.

While Eco-Tourism farms like Lohagarh close to Baadshahpur and Pratapgarh Farms in Jhajjar, Haryana are ideal destinations for corporates and other organized entities, families too find it convenient to take a day out at these spots, and to add to all this is the food that is provided by the farms. Besides providing various activities like Burma Bridge crossing, target practice, archery, and catapult aiming, these farms also have aviaries that may contain a few exotic species of birds, the Guinea fowl included. Well, I did try to take a few snaps of the parrots inside the enclosure, however, the wire mesh defeated the very purpose!






And if the inmates of the aviary are not interesting enough, visitors to the farm can go for a camel cart ride, a bullock cart ride, or for that effect, a tractor-trailer ride, all of them are guaranteed to give you a good shake.













Besides, if the camel ride doesn't fancy your attention, then you might as well try priming and then firing a blank at the enemy in the fort across the road! No, well I am joking as these guns are most probably dummies and might not take the load of the shot.



And if at the end of all the activities you get tired, you can always take a respite under one of the trees:



































Monday, 20 March 2017

Reference to Context Questions for My Mother at Sixty-six


Ex.1 'Driving from...looked'
Line 1-10

1. Where was she 'Driving' to and who was with her?
2. What figure of speech has the poet used in line 6-7?
3. With reference to the extract, what was it that she 'realised with pain'?

Ex.2. '...but soon...pale'
Line 10-17

1. What 'thought' did she put away?
2. How do the images of the 'trees sprinting' and 'merry children' contrast with that of the mother?
3. Describe the appearance of the mother according to line 16?

Ex.3. '...as a late winter's moon....smile....'
Line 18-24

1. What figure of speech has the poet used in line 18?
2. What 'familiar ache' is the poet talking about? Why is it 'familiar'?
3. How honest was the poet when she said, 'see you soon Amma.'
4. Identify the figure of speech in lines 23-24. Why has the poet used this particular figure of speech?


Thursday, 16 March 2017

What Experts are saying about Kodak Moments and Freecycling!




Oxford Dictionaries has just published its list of new words for the day and they prove that language is ever growing and ever evolving. No wonder we have come a long way since Shakespeare! So if you thought that the selfie was too common, then you could as well go for something better, a Kodak moment,  that is, if the moment warrants a video selfie! 
Topmost in the list of headings of new words in the Oxford Dictonaries blog deals with 'food words' and why should it not be, since we are a generation of foodies who love to brag about the exotic meals we have had. I would have loved to have my word, gravitatarian to be included in the list, but then I guess, very few know that gravitarianism deals with the conscious choice of eating the gravy rather than the meat! Our obsession with the superfruit has made us choose to consume expensive supplements that contain extracts of the acai berry or the Noni fruit! But hold one, there are some who would rather have shoestring fries which are less healthy than the fruits mentioned above! Veganism is on the rise and advocates of this school of eating will cry against the use of meat and eggs in one's diet. Well, there are substitutes for meat in the form of soya Nuggets or chunks and for the lovers of egg, there is the 'aquafaba, a substitute for egg whites' according to Oxford Dictionaries. I guess a lot of us will have partaken of Khao-pad-nam-prick-pao, that Thai dish of noodle, but then drunken noodles will tickle your palate even more, what with the exotic mix of vegetables, meat, and tofu. Experts claim that this stir fried dish might be the result of the 'drunkenness of the chef'! The chef would have thrown in ingredients that would have made it too spicy!
After food, we are concerned about the environment, and it is because we are concerned about the environment that we have come out with some important new words. A language needs to evolve, and in the process of its evolution, every language needs to have contextual relevance. Global warming, civil wars, manmade and natural factors have given rise to a tribe of climate refugees, 'those forced to leave their home' due to the ravages of climate change. Increased awareness about the environment and a sense of responsibility towards protecting the environment means that you are not a climate denier. A climate denier is someone who doesn't give two hoots about climate change, and he contributes to global warming in a big way by burning carbon points. A good conservationist will try to save energy in the form of negawatts, units of energy saved and he will go further in being generous and responsible enough to freecycle his surplus and unwanted goods by giving them away to those in need of them. So, the environment conscious citizen of today goes beyond recycling, reusing and reducing stuff that has the potential of polluting the environment.

The twenty-first century is also the age of the fitness freaks, the age of the fit bit and assorted fitness gadgets. Some fitness freaks enjoy flyboarding as a pastime.  Flyboarding is a form of travel in which the fitness guru travels in the air on a board that has jet engines! Some health conscious individuals will skitch to work if they are getting late. Skitching is all about riding a skateboard and hitching on to a moving vehicle. In Gurugram, I see newspaper delivery boys on bicycles hitching onto motorcycles just save time and energy, I, however, don't believe they are bitching! In times when we are conscious about the paunch going North, many of us who are health conscious resort to HIIT exercises. These high-intensity interval training exercises are effective in helping reduce the size of the paunch. The exercise involves alternating high-intensity physical exercise with short periods of recovery ( not, of course taking a brief nap in the gym). People who are lazy and not ready to undertake physical exercise will need, fitspiration often shortened to fitspo. What these terms mean according to the vocabulary gurus is the inspiration to be fit.
Some more interesting words (and I am sure you would agree about their relevance) include, drunk-dial or drunk-text. Calling up that offensive boss while drunk, or texting him while under the influence might cause you a lot of embarrassment later on, when you are sober. Never ever drunk-text or drunk-dial people that matter lest you should regret that silly act all your life!


Sunday, 12 March 2017

Tangled Petals Photo by Rodrick Lal -- National Geographic Your Shot

Tangled Petals Photo by Rodrick Lal -- National Geographic Your Shot: This is a snap of one of the exhibits at the Annual HUDA flower show at the Leisure Valley park in Gurgaon. The petals are so tangled over that this flower looks like an example of beauty in chaos. Nature surely has a way of showing that beauty need not lie in perfect symmetry!

Sunday, 5 March 2017

The Tiger King is a comment on the relationship that exists between the Bureaucrat and his Subordinates.

The Tiger King is an indirect comment on the political system that exists in the country even today. Politicians and bureaucrats treat their subordinates with an iron fist. Orders have to be obeyed by hook or crook, otherwise the consequence could include loss of job, or, transfer to a rural district.

The relationship that exists between the Maharaja is not based on sincerity or honesty, rather it is based on fear, fear of the consequences that would be the result of not being able to fulfil the order. The Maharaja's minions resort to illegal methods in order to fulfil his orders. The Diwan cheats the Maharaja by supplying him with a half dead tiger from a zoo in Madras. The hunters cheat the Maharja when they allow him to continue to believe that he has killed his hundredth tiger. None of them is ready to disillusion him about his victory lest they should incur their master's wrath and thus lose their jobs. The shopkeeper too, resorts to falsehood and dishonesty when he inflates the price of the poorly made wooden tiger many fold. He was afraid that if he told the Maharaja that the actual cost was only two annas and a quarter, 'he would be punished under the rules of the Emergency.' 

The point that Kalki is trying to driver through the short story The Tiger King is that it is high time bureaucrats and politicians in the country spent time in cultivating the trust and respect of their subordinates. It is important for people in power to be approachable, and flexible. They should be grounded and understand which orders can be fulfilled and which ones cannot be fulfilled. Subordinates who are unable to fulfil orders for a genuine reason should not be punished. The Maharaja often puts before his minions tasks that are simply absurd and simply impossible to fulfill. How do you get a tiger when there are none left in the kingdom. Why do you take stuff from a poor shopkeeper without paying telling him it is a gift from him to his son so you don't pay a cent! Why have you created a culture of terror and fear in your minions? These are just a few questions this writer seems to put before the bureaucrats and politicians of the country.


Saturday, 4 March 2017

Important Characters in The Invisible Man


A Brief glance of the characters in The Invisible Man

1.Griffin – An albino and a crazy scientist. He looks like an alien creature just arrived from space. There is something grotesque about him, rather like a person wearing a diving helmet, and the huge goggles he wears make him look outlandish. He has one goal in life, and that is “to show to the world” what he is and what he is capable of. He is incapable of maintaining human relationships. He is unemotional, does not feel sorry when his father commits suicide after Griffin robbed him. He had a girl whom he liked, but then his habit of finding fault in everyone made her look inferior and full of faults. He is a scientist who is driven by a desire to take revenge on the world for not recognising him and for perceived slights. He is a social as he doesn’t want to mix with society and keeps odd timings in Iping. Griffin is also anti-social and has a strong desire to destroy the world. His ultimate goal is to rule the world with an iron fist. For Griffin, Science is a tool for teaching humanity a lesson and not for its benefit.
2.Dr Kemp happens to be a counterfoil to Griffin. Unlike Griffin, he is a romantic scientist; he is someone who can appreciate the beauty of the setting sun. His biggest ambition is to become a fellow of the Royal Society. Dr Kemp is a person who will not take anything at face value. He listens to Griffin’s account about himself carefully, he asks him a lot of questions and gets the answers from Griffin that are convincing enough. However, Dr Kemp decides to check the newspapers before alerting Colonel Adye. to He wants to study and use science for the betterment of the society. Dr.Kemp cares about humanity. He is anthropomorphic in nature. He is a shrewd observer and suggests a few valuable steps be taken to secure Griffin at Port Stowe. He is a brave man who finally uses himself as a bait to draw Griffin into a street where his escape can be cut off by a group of labourers. It is clear that Dr Kemp is not interested in ruling over the world, rather he is more interested in saving it from a mad man like Griffin. Dr Kemp can also be called a brave man even when he is thought otherwise by the policemen at his house when they see him climbing out of the window after the maid.
3.Mrs Hall is a shrewd businesswoman who runs the Coach and Horses Inn with a tight fist. She is glad to have Griffin come in the month of February and rushes about to serve him food herself. She is level headed and more mature than her husband. She treats Griffin very nicely when he asks for lodging at the Coach and Horses and even looks into his comfort herself. She cooks for him, lays the table and serves him meals, all because she is interested in the money she can make from him. Mrs Hall becomes rather angry when the source of her income in the winter season seems to dry up. She serves him a bill on the breakfast tray and this is what angers the hungry Griffin. She can be harsh and caustic at times, especially when she scolds her husband.
4.Mr Hall is a foil to Mrs Hall, he seems to be less business minded than his wife. He is a dim- witted man who loves to have his pint of ale. Like all the rustic characters in the novel, he makes it a point to know what others are doing, he is too inquisitive. His dim-wittedness reaches a high point when Mrs Hall catches Teddy Henfrey and him listening at the parlour door while Griffin was roughing up Vicar Bunting and Mr Cuss, and she shouts at them, “Ain’t you nothin’ better to do—busy day like this?” There is a rather comical quality about his stupidity. Mr Hall has, perhaps no other role in the novel besides being Mrs Hall’s husband. Needless to say, he is the henpecked husband who is constantly being reprimanded and scolded for having little to do. The confrontations between husband and wife take up comical proportions, especially when he tries to tell her about something going on in the parlour in chapter twelve and thirteen.
5.Teddy Henfrey - like all the rustic characters, the residents of Iping, he is a gossip monger, a nosey parker who makes it a point to linger on in the parlour with the excuse of getting to know Griffin more. Griffin catches on to his game and tells him to get on with his work and not waste his time. In spite of being the typical dim-witted rustic, countryside character, he however, comes up with the strong feeling that Griffin is on the run from the law, and he expresses his strong belief that there is more to Griffin than meets the eye to Mr Hall.
6.Mr Cuss is the general practitioner of Iping village. His professional jealousy is aroused when he sees the number of bottles and flasks belonging to Griffin arriving at the Inn. He makes a daring plan to visit Griffin to know more about him. At the end of the meeting, Mr Cuss is more frightened than ever at not been able Griffin’s hand inside the sleeve. He runs to Vicar Bunting to tell him everything. Like all the other rustic characters, he has the habit of poking his nose into everyone’s affairs. Like all the other rustic characters, Mr Cuss is averse to any kind of change, which is why he views the arrival of all the bottles and flasks with suspicion.
7.Mr and Mrs Bunting are the typical small town church priest and his wife. Mr Bunting is the stereotypical church priest, frugal in nature, (the quality of the wine is poor) and he keeps some money in the office desk, housekeeping money as he calls it. He is also the typically highly educated man, who, because of his superior knowledge of Latin and Greek is supposed to be able to decipher the symbols in Griffin’s diaries. Unfortunately, he is not able to understand what has been written in the diaries. Mr. Bunting has a tough time when Mr Cuss suggests he should decipher what is written in the diaries. It has been a long time since he last read Greek and now he is expected to read Greek! Moreover, the Invisible Man used Greek symbols for Mathematical equations, the diaries could be deciphered only by a scientist, and certainly not a church vicar! He is level headed and supposedly someone that Mr Cuss can confide in about the strange experience he had while interviewing Griffin. His wife Mrs Bunting is devoted to him. She hears the footsteps of Griffin breaking into the vicarage, but then she doesn’t rush to wake up Revd. Bunting before making very sure that she is not hearing imaginary things. She wakes Revd. Bunting and stays with him all the way to the study where the house keeping money has been kept. Mr and Mrs Bunting offer a contrast to Mrs and Mr Hall in terms of the kind of relationship they have as husband and wife. The Buntings are more at ease with each other, they are more compatible with each other than the Halls.
8.Miscellaneous rustic characters: Mr Gould is the probationary assistant in the National school. He believes that Griffin is an anarchist out to blow something in an explosion. Mr Fearenside is the driver of the cart that brings Griffin’s bottles and flasks from the railway station. He spreads the piebald theory about Griffin. This is because he had been able to see the inside of the lower portion of Griffin’s leg when his dog bit him. He thought he had seen a patch. He believes that Griffin would be an ideal exhibit at a circus. Mr Sandy Wadgers is the village blacksmith, and he is called for after the incident of the flying furniture because he is a ‘knowing man…and very resourceful.’ When he arrives at the Coach and Horses and listens to a description of the incident of the flying furniture, he believes that witchcraft had caused the furniture to fly around. Mr Huxter is the shopkeeper. He is also ‘The Anglo-Saxon genius for parliamentary government’, and he guides the others about the legally and politically right way to tackle problems like Griffin. They might have a high social standing in the village community but then all of them are rather slow on the uptake and they argue about how they should handle the problem of the flying furniture and Griffin. Sandy Wadgers cautions them about being careful about breaking open Griffin’s door which has apparently opened by Mrs and Mr Hall. The rustic characters of Iping take a lot of time in making the right decisions. They have varied views, and take a long time in coming to a decision.
9.Bobby Jaffers is the typical village policeman. After getting the warrant for the arrest of Griffin, he marches ahead of a group of hangers on, stragglers and scared village folk who want to witness the arrest of Griffin. Unfortunately,  things turn difficult for Mr Bobby Jaffers, who after challenging Griffin is presented with a situation where he has to handcuff a man with no hands. Bobby Jaffers is a typical village constable, who is not able to improvise or handle the situation wisely. He struggles to handcuff Griffin, but Griffin evades him steadily slipping out of his clothes and becoming more and more invisible. Bobby Jaffers is a respected constable in the village, he is dedicated to his work, obeys and fulfils orders, tries to maintain law and order in Iping village, but then he is like his fellow villagers, dim witted, stupid and slow on the up take. The poor fellow gets beaten up in the melee, both by Griffin, and the others who punch and kick each other in their haste to get hold of Griffin.
10.Mr Marvel is the quintessential country side tramp, a vagabond who has no base who strikes gold. He is rotund, has a ruddy appearance with a perpetually red face, courtesy of the liquid diet of alcohol that forms his staple diet. Mr Marvel becomes the unwilling and unfortunate errands boy of Griffin. He is exploited by Griffin, and forced to enter into a no exit contract. He is made to do things that are illegal and dangerous. He is made to accompany Griffin to Iping to collect the diaries left behind in the parlour. He pushes the door to the parlour open allowing Griffin to slip in, and then takes his position under the parlour window from where Griffin hands him over the diaries. Mr Marvel’s pockets become the dumping ground or the containers to carry the coins robbed by Griffin from the people in Port Stowe. He tries to convince Griffin to let him go because he has a weak heart and is of no use to Griffin. However Griffin doesn’t let him go. It is because of this reason that Mr Marvel decides to run away. Mr Marvel barely escapes being caught by Griffin in the Jolly Cricketers Inn. Fortunately enough the man with the black beard fires at Griffin. Mr Marvel is surprisingly an interesting character in this book. He is the only person who benefits from his relationship with Griffin, having made off with all the money stolen by the latter. He sets down base in Port Stowe. Opens an inn and names it The Invisible Man. He becomes a wise man, and is the custodian of Griffin’s diaries. That the diaries are safe with him cannot be doubted. Mr Marvel proves to be a humble and modest man who in spite of his newly acquired wealth does not forget his roots.
11.The Man with the black beard is a man of action. He is probably from the Wild West, Texas in America. He has a revolver and itches to use it. The British constable in the Jolly Cricketers Inn however warns him about manslaughter. When the confrontation finally takes place between Griffin and the rest of the guests at the Jolly Cricketers, it is this man who takes things into his hands. He fires five rounds at Griffin and one of his rounds hits Griffin in the hand. The action of the man with the black beard brings about the turning point in the story because it is at this point that Griffin enters Dr Kemp’s house.
12.Colonel Adye is the exact opposite of Bobby Jaffers, the village constable. He is methodical, efficient, hard-working and intelligent. Colonel Adye is meticulous, conscientious, and a more intelligent Police Chief than a countryside constable will ever be. He follows Dr Kemp’s instructions to the word. Colonel Adye is a brave man who goes down fighting Griffin. Unfortunately he is no match for Griffin in terms of intelligence. He refuses to return to Dr Kemp’s house when Griffin instructs him to do so because he knows that the moment the door is opened by Dr Kemp to let him in, Griffin will slip in like he did before.